In the largest 500 cities in China, only less than 1% has met the recommended standard set up by World Health Organization (WHO). The most prominent air pollutant in China is PM10.
The economic cost of pollution in China every year is equal to 1.2% of GDP if calculated based on the related disease and is 3.8% of GDP if calculated based on willingness to pay.
The report – Towards environmental sustainable future – National environmental analysis of the People’s Republic of China announced the statistics yesterday. This report was accomplished by team consisted of experts in environmental fields from all over the world and professional team from Asian Development Bank.
The report also pointed out in the air pollution chapter that the increasing demand of fuel, number of automotive vehicles, and industrial expansion has deteriorated the quality of air and negatively affected body health and eco system.
The key example in the report is that only 1% of China’s 500 largest cities meet the recommended standard set up by WHO. Among the ten most polluted cities in the world, seven are in China.
Besides, there are several districts in China, because of mixed effects of pollutant from cities and industrial zones, become severely polluted zones. Combined with the frequency of smog, haze and acid rain, the environmental qualities in these zones have decreased dramatically.
The most obvious air pollutant in China is suspended particle, the report said. Over one third of the monitored suspended particles in cities have density more than that in the Ⅱ level pollution, much more than the degree of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide pollution. Most areas in China have high density of PM2.5, which becomes a very severe environmental problem.
The report also pointed out that China also faces the challenges of indoor air quality, which is not under consistent or systematic monitor.
A research done by China Consumer Association earlier showed that the methanol density has exceeded the standard by 73%, according to an indoor air sample from Beijing. The air sample in Hangzhou showed the methanol density is over 79% of standard, and the benzene density is 11 times that of the standard. The research also showed that 94% of the new cars which accept the monitor of air pollution have not meet the standard, and 90% of the new furnished houses have more methanol than that in the standard.
The epidemiology proved that air pollution can lead to mal-function of lung, the increase of morbidity and mortality of respiratory system disease, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It can also lead to increase of patients, absence from duty and premature death.
The Asian Development Bank Chief Expert in water resource Zhang Qingfeng said in the report conference that China should put more emphasis on the system of energy conservation and emission reduction, including the market-oriented policies and measures.
The report suggests Chinese government to reform in the pricing system of resources, and to introduce the green tax system. This reform put forwarded by the Asian Development Bank advises to levy on the emission of carbon dioxide and pollutant except related to resources exploitation. It also asks for the tax exemption of investment on equipment related to pollution control.
“The financial and fiscal policy freeform should be carried out with the economic incentives” said Zhang Qingfeng. This will transfer the environmental tax revenue from central government to provincial and local governments, encouraging them to invest on environment protection and resource conservation.
The dust on Jan 10th, Beijing CCTV Tower
Jan 13th, Beijing has been reported of sixth level of pollution in the three consecutive days
Jan 12th, tourists were walking in the Temple of Haven. Beijing’s Government several departments have announced through internet, micro blog, TV and radio, suggesting residents to stay indoors and students to minimize outdoor activities.
Jan 12th, Wuhan
Jan 12th, residents were riding in a bridge in Nanchang
Jan 12th, Zhengzhou, Henan Province
An armed police guard was on duty in a heavy fog.
Photo above: Zhengzhou, Oct 10th, 2012
Photo below: Zhengzhou, Jan 8th, 2013
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