4 men sentenced to jail time for homosexual criminal licentiousness


(From IFeng) Knocking open the hotel room door, several young men looked nervous and not fully dressed – a random police search unexpectedly gained the clues for a criminal licentiousness case which led to the arrests of 4 men. Recently, the court has sentenced the first homosexual group licentiousness case in Nanjing, three men were sentenced to imprisonment with a suspended sentence; one man was sentenced to detention with a suspended sentence. Among the four accused, two have college degrees, two have master degrees and all have decent jobs. They walked on this path because of high pressure from work and needed to vent, some also because of curiosity.

Last November 26, a policeman of Yueyahu station, Nanjing patrolled into a hotel. He knocked on a door and found several nervous looking young men, not fully dressed. The police also found some unused condoms in the room, so he integrated them. Those young men all admitted that they are homosexual, and opened the room to get ready for licentious activities. Then the policeman booked them to the police station and soon learned that a man named Liang Chen also organized such activities, so Liang was called to the police station as well.

Liang, 25 years old, confessed the fact that he had twice had sexual (licentious) activities in the hotel with Zheng Qiang and others. So Zhang Qiang was summoned to the station on the same night, he also confessed everything. The case had more and more people involved in, Li Hua, Qian Daping etc. more than a dozen people were summoned into the police station.

After investigation, these people all constituted group licentiousness, and 4 men including Zhang Qiang have been charged with the crime of group licentiousness. Zhang Qiang who had participated in the most number of licentious activities was detained and the rest were released on bail.

Among more than a dozen people involved in this criminal licentiousness case, some of them were not held criminally responsible due to low level of involvement. Nanjing Baixia Prosecutor charged the 4 men with criminal licentiousness and scheduled the prosecution in August of this year.

In court, 4 accused had no comments on the prosecutor’s allegations. They admitted their lack of legal knowledge and hope the court to give them a lighter punishment. Their lawyers also did not plead them innocence, but rather focused on other things like court’s orders, the fact that they turned themselves in, being first offender and good behaviors before and other circumstances.

“I am sorry to my parents for what I have done.” When giving final statement in court, suspect Qian Daping broke down in tears and recited Poem of Tang Dynasty – “Song of a Wanderer”…

Baixia Court confirmed that the 4 suspects organized and participated in group licentious activities numerous times, which constitutes criminal licentiousness. In the recent verdict, Zhang Qiang and 2 others were sentenced to prison with a suspended sentence; Qian Daping was sentenced to detention with a suspended sentence.

26 year old Zhang Qiang of Nanjing is currently working in a high-tech company. In the eyes of most girls, he looks handsome, has a stable job which is good marriage material. However, looks can be deceiving; Zhang Qiang is only interested in men.

On a “comrade” (slang for gay) website community, Zhang Qiang quickly made some friends. Then he joined “comrade” QQ group and also met up with these friends for dinners. When Zhang Qiang heard someone in his QQ group suggested a one night stand with many people, he had never had sexual relations with a man before, but the idea of many people having sex together was unimaginable to him. However, only after watching it once, he never refused it again. “Mainly is because too much pressure from work, I wanted to vent.”

30 year old Qian Daping is a manager of a company in Nanjing. Having all foreigners as customers, the company is a large state-owned enterprise in Jiangsu province. He was also an excellent student cadre when studied in a well-know university in undergraduate and graduate studies.

Different from Zhang Qiang, Qian Daping has a girlfriend, but deep down in his heart he approves homosexuality. He said, he was aware of his homosexuality in the age of 20, and was exposed to some gay people. Out of curiosity and thrill seeking, Qian Daping joined the activates Zhang Qiang organized.

September 23 last year, Qian Daping opened a hotel room and called his Internet friend “Moonlight”. A few phone calls and text messages later, 5 men stood in the room…

Nanjing Gulo Hospital director of Medical Psychology, Caoqiu Yun said that China’s traditional culture does not recognize same-sex sexual  orientation, and because our law recognizes only the husband and wife relationship between a man and a woman, most gay people in China live a secret life.

  1. Quite sad, really, one of the great societal hurdles of any country. I’m glad China has taken steps such as recognizing it’s not a mental disease, but the fact that it’s still illegal is a bit perplexing. I’m looking forward to the upcoming years when these crazy elders finally are removed from power.

    1. I totally agree, homosexuality is a perfect form of birthcontrol, it should be promoted around the world.

    2. Coming from here, there should be no problems with having consentual fun with underage girls either. no double standards, please.

    1. It’s not about homosexuality. “Regular” swingers get arrested for participating in group sex as well. It’s still not right of course but to the best of my knowledge this isn’t about cracking down on gay and lesbian lifestyles, just another archaic law of which China has plenty.

      1. National Treasure is just pissed that he can’t get any dick in China without getting arrested 🙂

        1. You are a dick, and you’re always here ready to be fucked by anybody. That’s why everybody loves you, darling

          1. Wouldn’t be surprised if you were ‘Voice of the Galaxy aka max headroom’ aka Wen… You’re failure to write sentences makes it obvious. Shouldn’t you be feeding your starving family? LOL

            1. I am so very impressed! Finally, there is something the Only True Voice of China DOES NOT know!!!

              AMAZING. People, come and have a look.

              I don’t know this “Max whaterver”, and you got my identity wrong.
              Keep thinking kid, we will always love you.

              BTW, korean guy says you were a bit boring last night. What’s wrong, baby?

        2. I am not gay and I don’t harbor any animosity against homosexuals (my native country is one of the most liberal in the world) so if you want to offend me you need to find a different path.

          1. Come on National Treasure, you don’t really believe that Australia is THAT liberal do you?

            While some countries may seem more more than others. Most people despise homosexuals. Some people just hide it better than others.

              1. Actually, Australia is very liberal as far as homosexual affairs are concerned. There are still laws against homosexuality (mainly with regards to marriage and welfare) in some states, but the truth is that being gay in Australia is fun. The police also pretty much ignored the harsher laws anyway by the late 80s even before they were changed.

                I’d love for you to cite the study that said “most people hate homosexuals, some people hide it better” in Australia, Sydney in particular. I think you’re running your mouth (fingers) without any evidence except your own prejudiced views.

                You also seem to forget that many people are homosexual and somehow I can’t see them being the only ones who are not flaming homophobes. I live in Sydney and my opinions are local, sometimes even firsthand, where do you live?

                Oh, by the way, being able to translate Guobao’s name also does not make you sound more intelligent, just conceited.

                1. Oh, by the way, being able to translate Guobao’s name also does not make you sound more intelligent, just conceited.

                  Wrong – the fact that National Treasure uses a Chinese alias to consistently find every opportunity to bash Chinese is conceited.

                  Understanding two basic words of common Chinese vocabulary can hardly be interpreted as an attempt to sound ‘clever’. You must be quite stupid if you view it to be the case.

                  Actually, Australia is very liberal as far as homosexual affairs are concerned. There are still laws against homosexuality (mainly with regards to marriage and welfare) in some states, but the truth is that being gay in Australia is fun.

                  I’m not talking about laws regarding homosexuality, I don’t understand enough about the situation in Australia to make a educated comment regarding them.

                  I’d love for you to cite the study that said “most people hate homosexuals, some people hide it better” in Australia, Sydney in particular. I think you’re running your mouth (fingers) without any evidence except your own prejudiced views.

                  The fact is that the majority of people are not homosexual. Last time I checked, calling somebody ‘gay’ was an insult in itself. I don’t need evidence to make a general statement about anti-gay sentiment in anglo society in general. I presume that it is true.

                  Take your common Australian ‘bloke’ Darren Hayes for example, he was one of my favorite singers back in the day of Savage Garden. Not only was he fearful of that news coming out in his prime but one he went solo, his albums flopped.

                  Wake up and try and understand that deep down inside, people don’t like homosexuals. No matter how much people ‘pretend’ and hide under the guise of superficial tolerance, deep down inside, humans are prejudiced. Just like the view that women belong in the kitchen 😉

  2. It’s about time a country had the guts to do what the Church and Western governments have wanted to do for a century.

    1. LOL you have got to be a troll. I’m sure it’s fun, but doesn’t it take a lot of time? I guess it doesn’t matter, as long as people keep coming to the site.

  3. Just when I started happening to have hope for China after Wen’s comments on political reform, they have to go and do this…

        1. Max Headroom, I told you to watch your starving family. Life aint easy in Burma.

  4. What? China’s traditional cultural tacitly accepts homosexuality as long as 1. it’s not too flagrant and 2. you have kids with a woman. It is Western taboos over the last century that have made people think its a crime.

    1. oh sure, this is the fault of Western people again, cuz the noooble chungiez are sooo understanding and tolerant… lol, I guess
      besides nothin and nobody can make the chinezzee to “think”…

  5. Not to inject a note of boring accuracy into the proceedings or anything, but “group licentiousness” has nothing to do with whether you’re gay or not, it just means group sex. A bunch of (hetero) swingers in Jiangsu got busted for the same thing a while back.

  6. This reminds me of an article I recently stumbled upon, called ‘Queer Comrades’.
    During the late sixties the first homosexual rights groups began to emerge in the west. Followed by gay comedians, designers, actors, artists, parades. People got used to it, and nowadays in part of the west it’s hardly even an issue anymore. They can have a public career, adopt children, even get married and so on. Other countries like the US are still struggling with some of these issues, often because of religious intolerance. As to the proportion of people that are gay, lesbian or bisexual – one out of ten are usually estimated to fit into this category. I wonder if there would be any valid reason to assume a different percentage would occur in China. Imagine more than a 100 million chinese people living in a closet, or 5 million transgenders (one in 250 on average). What would happen if they all came out at once, and start a pink revolution?

      1. If you’re wondering why Guo Bao is participating in these threads so much, its because he is a closet gay.

        1. Don’t be afraid of your true sexuality. We won’t discriminate you for that. We love you

    1. I read about some large recent studies on homosexuality and since I too was always told it was about 10 percent I was kinda surprised to find that the number were more like 3-5 percent of a given population.

      1. There will always be some dispute about the numbers, usually for political reasons. It may depend on what sources or methods of survey one validates, but I would say most estimates are closer to ten if you include those who are potentially gay, but not necessarily practicing or willing to admit.

  7. what do you expect?
    a nation with a one child policy and disliking for female offspring, how else will these lonely men get their jollies?

  8. Nanjing, again. Is someone in the local government trying to set themselves up as prude-in-chief? Maybe someone feels jealous because they were left out of the loop?

    Seriously, though, I’m wondering why all the anti-licentiousness crackdown in Nanjing, when there don’t seem to be similar crackdown stories coming out of other parts of China. Thoughts? Are there crackdowns elsewhere, but we’re just not hearing about it?

  9. Well it seems they been arrested for having “group sex”
    Straight Swingers get arrested for the same motive, I find it quite fair actually

    But the whole post taste like bitter gay hatred
    Which I find disturbing but not surprising

    But once again, anybody who had a conversation related to the topic of gays with local Chinese know that they can’t stand gays, find them “disturbing”, “twisted” and “sick”
    Can you really expect higher standards of tolerence from such ppl

    So strange, especially when the country is filled with “massage parlor”, “KTV”, whore houses
    Even more disturbing to me, this whole young mistress thing (isn’t that prostitution ?)

  10. Worth nothing that homosexuality is NOT illegal in China, and never has been (apart from two briefly-enforced laws under the Kangxi emperor.

    Straight people participating in group sex are also prosecuted, and there have been several high profile cases this year alone. Group sex is illegal in China regardless of the gender of people involved. And, if you check some European law (UK and France, for example) it’s illegal in most of the rest of the world.

    I’m not endorsing this heavy-handed treatment of these men, but I think it’s not the attack on gays some commentators seem to think.

  11. Is Homosexuality All Right?
    Homosexuality is a couple of the same gender, males or females, who experience sexual love together. Most of human cultures despise this behavior. For example, in Chinese it is called 鸡奸(jee jian), a term that is despised. The first Chinese character means chicken and the second rape. This term sounds badly because it is the same as the way chickens mate. A rooster runs after a hen until she stops and crouches, and then he steps on her back and penetrates his sexual organ into her anus. With this expression homosexuals certainly have a bad reputation among the people. But in some Western countries, homosexuals are treated differently. For example, some gays and lesbians can have same sex marriage; American homosexuals fight more and more to gain legal support for equal rights like same sex marriage, job security, benefits, and so on. Many government officials and churches request to treat these individuals equally (Greenberg & Page497). Truely, many Democratic politicians are repeatedly in the pursuit of homosexuals’ satisfaction, votes; many church members sympathize with homosexuals; churches, such as Episcopal Church, even ordain homosexuals as ministers. What is wrong with homosexuals? Evidence is needed to clarify this human behavior.
    To define homosexuality, this term sounds better than the F word in the public such as classroom or church, but, in fact, homosexuality and F word belong in the same category, something we cannot be proud of. Several sources enable us to understand homosexuality. An American college sociology textbook of 1980s describes the behaviors of gay and lesbian, “Most homosexuals play both roles” and try “a variety of sexual arousal roles and techniques.” The individuals probably kiss, hug, and pet among same gender persons; gays may have “mutual masturbation, oral-genital sex, and more rarely tribalism.” Some lesbians use a dildo to stimulate one another (Zastrow 191). However, this authoritative source does not offer detail homosexual behavior as the non-authoritative source Wikipedia does. The article “Homosexuality” of this website reports that some lesbians use finger to penetrate into each other’s anus. Anus is full of dirty stool. However, homosexuals are human beings and deserve their sexual need met. The next source is Sexuality and the Sacred, a textbook of American seminary in 1990s, from which people can understand what lesbianism is from a record about an Italian nun Benedetta Carlina of the seventeenth century. As her fellow nuns testified, Benedetta, a nun, had had sexual relationship with another nun Bartolomea for two years, “At least three times a week, in the evening after disrobing” and going to bed, Benedetta, an abbess, waited for that nun to come and “disrobe, and Benedetta called that nun as if there was needed. When Bartolomea came over, Benedetta would grab her by the arm and throw her by force on bed, embrace her, put Bartolomea under herself, kiss Bartolomea as a man does, and speak words of love to Bartolomea (Boswell 370). These two nuns just wanted their sexual need met. They were human beings, and this lesbian behavior was a tragedy of Catholic nuns, the Catholic Church, and humanity. Another source The World Book Encyclopedia indicates that youth “may explore their sexual development with members of their own sex.” Some of them “masturbate (pleasurably handle their own sex organs). Boys may handle the sex organs of other boys.” Some “girls may also stimulate each other” (307). Such youths’ activity, the same page continues, might lead the youth to a homosexual orientation. What they do enables audience to know part of the sad stories of human life: homosexuality. Such young people’s behaviors are not the things we can be proud of; people are only proud of their children who are accepted by Harvard, Yale, Berkeley and other prestigious schools; or are rich; or are able to do something wonderfully. These homosexuals’ behaviors, just as the precise comment of the American college sociology textbook, are very obscene and vulgar to most of Americans (Zastrow 190).So homosexuality is dirty and sad.

    In addition to define, we must find out the root causes of homosexuality. The causes are several. First, humans have sexual need as Sigmund Freud argues “that the sex drive is a fundamental part of human life” (Zastrow 166). Many people are saved from abnormal minded problem with sexuality. When some humans have no chance to meet their sexual need with different gender partners, they might involve in homosexuality. Second, the Catholic Church also causes homosexuality. The two Catholic nuns who involve in homosexual behavior are victims who have no chance to meet men. The Catholic Church deprives their human needs, blames their sexual behavior, and punishes these victims with life-imprisonment. The Catholic abbess Benedetta was decided by her parents to be a nun when she was only six years old (Boswell 370). To many people, being a nun who has to deny her own sexual need is a life imprisonment. Modern Catholic nuns also have their sexual needs that have been denied by their church. Besides, as Catholic priests are not allowed to get married, some of these humans might skulk around homosexuality. This could be a reason that a Philippine’s Catholic priest told a Baptist seminary student in Richmond, VA in a Filipino’s home in 1995: More and more Catholic priests were fighting for their rights to get married. Now the Catholic Church does not have the legal power to put nuns in jail for life time as before but still wants some individuals to deny their sexual needs, and this policy can lead to homosexuality. Third, secular world has its causes that lead humans to be gays or lesbians. As The World Book Encyclopedia points out, long term prisoners who have no chance to meet different gendered people might become homosexuals (307). The prisoners are human beings; if their sexual need cannot be met, some may become homosexuals. Fourth, many males who are in the lowest status and absolute poverty of the places where there are shortage of women might be involved in homosexuality. These males could be poor peasants, coal workers, shepherds, coolies, beggars, and etc. While they cannot afford to get married, some of them might try to find their sexual need by being gays. Certainly there are poor females who become homosexuals. According to a Riverside St. George Episcopal Church senior warden, a friend becomes lesbian because of her ex-husband’s violence against her. This victim accepts homosexuality now in order to avoid family tragedy, and there are more women in her situation. Homosexuality seems to be a solution or a reason to the victims. Fifth, military is also a reason. Many soldiers, who are young, strong, and sexually activated, have no chance to be close to women. This reason might remind people of the World War II while Japanese rulers allowed their soldiers to rape Asian women and the Comfort Girls. Such criminal behavior was severely punished and has been condemned for decades. Now some countries allow their soldiers to visit prostitutes and some prohibit. Anyway, this is only part of military causation that leads to homosexuality. Sixth, wars may cause homosexuality. Ameirca has examples. Why are so many gays and lesbians in America? A main reason is that America has been fighting for centuries and had had shortage of men for centuries. Before 21th century, America had fought the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-A merican War, WWI, WWII, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Iraq War; and this century America has been fighting the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and now the Libya War. Many American males, in these wars, have died and more handicapped. The following chart presents some facts regarding wars:

    Number Serving
    Battle Deaths
    Disease & Accidents
    Total Casualties

    Revolutionary War

    War of 1812

    Mexican War

    Civil War

    Spanish-American War

    World War I

    World War II

    Korean War

    Vietnam War

    Persian Gulf War

    NA = Not available

    Source: U.S. Department of Justice.

    The death and wounded mostly are males. With these heavy casualties many American women have been unable to find men. Even at the last two decades of last century in American churches, there were more women than men. A Cacacian minister of the Chinese baptist church in Richmond, VA estimated that

    the ratio of men to women was 7 to 1 in America. Her estimation might not be accurate but to some extent. And even now in American churches, elderly women are still much more than elderly men. These facts somewhat prove the wars’ consequence, mostly caused by the Korean War and Vietnam War. Therefore, many American women were unable to find men, and some of them might become lesbians. After wars, many American disabled military men cannot find women to marry; some disabled military men pay prostitution for sexual need but cannot afford too often. As those human groups cannot have normal sexual need met, some of them certainly try other ways to solve their problem. Part of those people might become gays. Seventh, people’s stubbornness is another reason. Among those who were born in 1980s in China, males are 30 millions more than females. Many Chinese females try to find overseas males to marry; many newspapers, internet websites, and individuals work as matchmakers for these women. Therefore, more than 30 millions of Chinese males cannot and will not be able to get wives. To make it worse, among those who were born in China in 1990s, males are 10 millions more than females: More than 40 millions of Chinese males will be unable to get wives. A website article of the BBC, as well as many media of the Eastern and Western countries, reports this human tragedy (Allen). Many of the Chinese might become gays. The Chinese government has been applying one child policy since 1980s, and many Chinese stubbornly preferred having boys to girls without caring the consequence, their sons cannot find wives now. This problem might lead China to have the biggest gay population in the world. There are more reasons that cause homosexuality.
    Regardless of human shame, tragedy and reasons, homosexuals are not respected but despised. The Chinese term, used for homosexuals, “chicken rapists” is an example of how society blatantly despises these individuals, and homosexuals were put in jail for years in China. Most of the cultures certainly use similar terms to despise the individuals. In addition, gays and lesbians cannot have equal employment opportunity but do lower status jobs only. These individuals have to thank God if they are not persecuted by the concerned authorities. Another example, based on the article “Islam and Homosexual,” is that many governments persecute homosexuals as criminals. If one is found to be homosexual, the governments will fine, imprison and even execute this person. In some Arabic countries, gays and lesbians suffer from this persecution. The secular governments use the legal system to stop homosexual behaviors. In Western countries, homosexuals were treated badly in the past, and now homosexuals are not so shameful; some areas allow same sex marriage. Where nuns were sentenced to long term imprisonment, they are sentenced no more. However, most Americans, for example, still oppose same-sex marriage; on behalf of most Americans, former President George W. Bush turned down the homosexuals’ request for supporting same-sex marriage (Greenberg & Page 498). In America, gays and lesbians are not allowed to be in some jobs. Homosexuals are treated as criminals, or second class citizens in most of the secular world. Humans must have mercy on these unfortunate individuals. However, many religions neither tolerate nor allow homosexuality.

    The world’s main religions have no mercy on homosexuals. The doctrines of Buddhism, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam not only disallow homosexuality but also condemn homosexuals’ behavior. First, Buddhism does not allow homosexuality. The article “Buddhism and Homosexual” quotes what the famous Buddhist leader Dalai Lama’s words, “[…] homosexuality is never accepted in Buddhism.” He adds, “God, who created us, says homosexual acts are wrong.” The Buddhist view on homosexuality is clear enough. Second, Confucius’ teaching, accepted in Eastern and Western countries, teaches people to make progress. His book The Analects teaches, “When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves”(Legge, translation). We, prompted by his teaching, must learn from capable individuals until we can be the same as them and avoid copying bad examples. Confucius’ Analects 12: 11 teaches, “Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the minister being a minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son” (Confucius). He here asks rulers and people to improve moral goodness and to make progress while maintaining socially acceptable behaviors all the time. Homosexuals are not in the position to belong to this category of making progress but belong to those when we meet we have to look within and examine our own self. Third, in the Bible, homosexuality is too sinful to be forgiven. Levi 20: 13 (The Holy Bible) teaches Jews and Christians, “If a man has sexual relations with another man as a man does with a woman; these two men have done a hateful sin. They must be put to death.” This verse is tougher than any other religions’ teachings on homosexuality. Not an iota of this verse is changed now. Fourth, Islam condemns homosexuality. Qur’an 7: 82 teaches Muslims, “Drive them [homosexuals] out of your city” (Islam and Homosexual”). Islam is to get rid of homosexuals, trash. All of these main world religions do not compromise with homosexuality because it is wrong with these doctrines. These religions do not sympathize with homosexuals and do not care about the reasons of these individuals’ obscene behavior.

    Therefore, homosexuality is not only despised in the secular world but also rejected by the world’s main religions. As abovementioned, homosexuality is a product of tragedy of human society, and homosexuals will be more. We have no reason to be proud of them because of their sexual behavior. However, society must respect these individuals’ basic human rights even though there are causations. To deal with this human tragedy, human beings may have a solution similar to what Jesus tells the Jews who catch the adulterous woman and want to test him. Jesus just draws on the ground for a while and then suggests the Jews if anyone of them who never sins can stone her to death; all the Jews leave because they all sin; so he tells the woman to sin no more and go home (John 8:1-11). Yes, all human beings are sinners (Romans 3:9-11). The cogent thesis is: Homosexuality is sinful, but homosexuals are human beings, and they need to be treated fairly; other human beings all sin and have no reason to despise homosexuals, victims of human disasters.

  12. Works Cited

    Allen, Christopher. “Traditions Weigh on China’s Women.” BBC News. 19 June 2006, 12:17 GMT
    13:17 UK. Web. 17

    Apr. 2011.

    Boswell, John. “Homosexuality and Religous Life.” Edited by Longfellow,Sandra P., and

    Nelson,James B. Sexuality and the Sacred.
    Louisville: Westminister/John Knox Press, 1993.

    “Buddihism and Homosexual.” 11 Mar. 2001. Web. 28 Mar. 2011..

    Confucious. Chapter IV, The Analects. (J. Legge, trans

    1893). 16 Mar. 2011, at 20:57. Web. 29 Mar. 2011..

    “Confucious.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/. 5
    Sep, 2006. Web. 24 May 2011.

    Greenberg, Eward S., and Benjamin I. Page. The Struggle for Democracy. 8th Ed. New York:
    Pearson Longman, 2007.

    “Homosexuality.” The World Book Encyclopedia. H 9 Vols. Chicago: World Book, 1999.

    “Islam and Homosexual.” Online posting. 9 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Mar.



    “Lesbian.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesbian. 2 Mar. 2011 Web. 24 Mar. 2011.

    The Holy Bible: containing the Old and New Testaments. Dallas: Word, 1991. Print. New Century

    “WWI Casualty and Death Tables One way.” U.S. Department of Justice. 14 Mar. 2011. Web. 25
    Mar. 2011. .

    Zastrow,Charles. Social Problems: Issues and Solutions. 2nd Ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. 1988.

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